Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of the use of Hearing Aid Compared to the use of Seeing Aid among Nigerian Youths

U. S. Aguwa, F. O. Onu, F. O. Ovie, A. E. Agulanna, C. E. Eze

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i230239

Needed attention has not been paid to hearing defects and the use of hearing aids compared to the enormous attention given to visual problems. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of visual defect to hearing defect and by extension the frequency of use of medicated glasses compared to the use of hearing aid. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed randomly among students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus. Four hundred and seventy eight was retrieved, out of which 11 were disqualified due to improper filling, leaving us with a total of 467 properly filled questionnaires (representing 93.4% of the total number). Results were computed in simple percentages. Our results show that only 1.5% of the study population reported positive for hearing defect. Out of this number, only one respondent uses a hearing aid (representing 0.21% of the population). This is unlike seeing defect in which 117 (25.05% of total population) reported positive and 41.81% of them attested to the use of medicated glasses (representing 15.85% of the total population). All subjects who had hearing defects are aged between 15 and 25 (15-20 = 57.14%; 21-25 = 42.86%). This is similar to the case of seeing defects where the majority (70%) is aged 15-20 and 26% are aged 21-25, totally 96% of cases. We believe the enormity of persons subscribing to seeing aids are so because of massive awareness and affordability of medicated glasses, which in some cases is made available at no cost to the patient. The lack of data on persons with hearing defect in the country as well as the lack of publicity and investment in hearing aids has contributed greatly to the lack of interest and unwillingness on the part of patients to reach for hearing aids. Our results also show that females reported more both for hearing defects and seeing defect relative to their number. We therefore propose a better information system in which hearing aids are not only made available but also affordable and the masses are rigorously enlightened as to the health and social benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis and Phytochemical Screening of Polyherbal Aqueous Leaves Extract (PALE)

M. Idu, M. O. Aihiokhai, C. A. Imoni, C. E. Akokigho, N. C. Olali

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i230240

Background: Polyherbal plant extracts which usually comprise of two or more plant parts often contain a wide array of key phytoactive constituents relevant in attaining greater therapeutic efficacy. The active constituents derived from individual plants are insufficient to provide attractive pharmacological action when compared to a combination of multiple herbs.

Objective: To conduct phytochemical screening of polyherbal aqueous leaf extracts                            (PALE) and analysis of compounds present in it by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Materials and Methods: The polyherbal extract was prepared from the combined aqueous extracts of leaves of Alchornea cordifolia, Sorghum bicolor and Pennisetum glaucum using ratio 1:1:1 w/v. Phytochemical screening was done via standard analytical methods. The identification and characterization of compounds by GC-MS analysis was performed on gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry.

Results: The phytochemical analysis of PALE revealed the presence of phenols, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins in varying quantities. GC-MS analysis of the extract depicts the presence of key bioactive compounds. Thirty-two bioactive compounds were identified with various retention time and % peaks. The major compounds identified in terms of % peak area are n-Hexadecanoic acid (6.72), Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (7.28), 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (16.54) and 9-Octadecenoic acid ethyl ester (12.92). Disulfide, dimethyl (0.04), 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol (0.28), 1-Dodecanol (0.85), 10-Phenyldecanoic acid (0.12), 1-Hexadecanol (0.75), Methoxyacetic acid, pentadecyl ester (0.27), 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, phenylmethyl ester (0.16), Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) (1.09), were among the minor compounds identified in the extract. From the study, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid indicated the highest peak with a retention time of 20.556 minutes and % peak area of 16.54%.

Conclusion: The presence of the revealed bioactive constituents in PALE may suggest its nutraceutical, pharmacological and therapeutic relevance. Therefore, in view of the medicinal importance associated with the observed bioactive constituents, further studies on the toxicity level of  the extract is advised subsequently.

Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic and Eco-Morphological Study of Antibacterial Plants in Phytotherapeutic Practice of Kasai Oriental in DR Congo

M. M. Musuasua, O. N. Kabena, L. K. Kalanda, D. M. Y. Masens, P.T. Mpiana

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 19-41
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i230241

Aims: To make an ethnobotanical survey in the province of Kasai Oriental to identify the plant species used in the treatment of bacterial diseases; carry out a floristic analysis and determine their eco-morphological characteristics.

Study Design: The surveys were conducted in the villages of all the territories of the Kasai Oriental province in RD CONGO for five years and nine months, from March 2013 to December 2018. The confirmation of the identified species was made at the Laboratory of the ISP Mbujimayi and Herbarium of the ecology laboratory of the Department of Biology of the University of Kinshasa.

Place and Duration of Study: The surveys were conducted in the villages of all the territories of the Kasai Oriental province in RD CONGO for five years and nine months, from March 2013 to December 2018. The confirmation of the identified species was made at the Laboratory of the ISP Mbujimayi and Herbarium of the ecology laboratory of the Department of Biology of the University of Kinshasa.

Methodology: Pre-established questionnaires were submitted to healers and potential patients living in the region. Data were collected on local phytotherapeutic practices in order to identify indigenous plants used in the treatment of bacterial diseases. The plants listed have been identified and their eco-morphological characteristics were determined.

Results: From examination of the responses of 391 traditional healers and 1,485 residents and potential patients questioned, one hundred and sixteen plant species reputed to be effective against bacteriosis were identified. They belong to 19 orders, 39 families and 87 genera. Among these plants, only 6 families (Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Phyllanthaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae) provide 51.57% of the species used against bacterial pathologies i.e more than half. Woody plants (62.94%) predominate among the species used (27.59% of trees, 27.59% of shrubs). Wild savannah species (44.83%) and pantropical ones (32.76%) are the most numerous among the plants of Kasai Oriental which provide drugs against bacteriosis.

Conclusion: The results confirm that several local plant species are commonly used to treat bacterial diseases in Kasai Oriental. Local herbalists use more phanerophyte plants from savannah and especially trees and shrubs.

Open Access Review Article

Non Pharmacological Interventions to Manage Cancer-Related Fatigue (CRF) - An Overview

. Shambhavi, Diana Lobo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 42-51
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i230242

Fatigue is almost a common problem often reported by the cancer patients that severely affects all aspects of quality of life. Prevalence of cancer related fatigue ranges from 50% to 90% of cancer patients overall. After addressing treatable contributing factors, such as hypothyroidism, anemia, insomnia, pain, emotional distress, medication adverse effects, metabolic disturbances, or organ dysfunction such as heart failure, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis, patients may be screened with a short fatigue assessment tool. There is a pressure for pharmacologic therapy to shift away from reliance on opioids and ineffective procedures toward comprehensive cancer related fatigue (CRF) management that includes evidence-based nonpharmacologic options. This review details the magnitude of the current CRF problem including its impact on quality of life as well as the challenges of CRF management for patients and a healthcare workforce engaging prevalent strategies not entirely based in current evidence. Transforming the current system of CRF care to a responsive comprehensive model necessitates those options for treatment and collaborative care must be evidence-based and include effective nonpharmacologic strategies that have the advantage of reduced risks of adverse events and addiction liability. Patients with cancer related fatigue may benefit from self-administrable nonpharmacological interventions without any side effects. Health care personnel often have insufficient knowledge about fatigue and its treatments or underestimate the impact of fatigue on quality of life. A practical review may be useful to health care professionals in order to identify the cancer related fatigue during the early period of cancer process and treat it effectively to improve the quality of life which contribute to the positive outcomes in cancer clients. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to analyze the possible nonpharmacological approach to manage cancer related fatigue and recommend future research that will clarify these approaches and facilitate the formulation of new treatment options.

Open Access Review Article

Mini-review on Natural Disintegrants in Pharmaceutical Formulations

S. U. Kankanamge, A. G. K. Neranja, K. D. S. Sandarenu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 52-56
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i230243

Disintegrants are agents which are integrated to tablets and some encapsulated formulations in order to promote the breakup of the tablet and capsule “slugs” into more small fragments in an aqueous environment which thereafter increment the available surface area and promoting a more rapid release of the drug substance.  The development of new excipients for potential use as disintegrant agent in tablet formulations continues to be of interest. This is because different disintegrant agents can be useful in promoting penetration of moisture and dispersion of the tablet matrix and disintegration of tablet has received considerable attention at present as an essential step in obtaining fast drug release. Natural polymers such as starches, gums, mucilage, and dried fruits utilized as binder, diluent, and disintegrants to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drug, decrease the disintegration time, and provide nutritional supplement. Natural disintegrants are safe and economical than synthetic disintegrants such as Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Therefore, in the present review, an attempt has been made to reveal the importance of the natural disintegrants in the pharmaceutical formulations.